Classification and use of forging parts

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Classification and use of forging parts

Forging parts refers to a workpiece or blank obtained by forging and deforming a metal blank. By applying pressure to the metal blank, it produces plastic deformation, which can change its mechanical properties. According to the temperature of the blank during processing, forging parts can be divided into cold forging parts, warm forging parts, and hot forging parts. Cold forging parts are generally processed at room temperature, and forging parts are processed at a temperature higher than the recrystallization temperature of the metal blank.



Here is the content list:

Type of forging parts.

Detailed division according to the structure type of the forging parts.

Use of forging parts.



Type of forging parts

The difference in the complexity of the geometry of the forging parts determines the obvious difference between the forging process and the design of the die. A clear forging parts structure is a necessary prerequisite for process design. The industry divides general forging parts into three categories.

Type I- Forging parts with the main axis of the main body placed in the mold cavity, and the horizontal two-dimensional dimensions are similar (circular/rotating bodies mostly, square or similar). The upsetting step is usually used in the die forging of this type of forging part. Divided into 3 groups according to the difficulty of forming.

Type II- Forging parts of straight and long shafts with the main axis lying in the die and forming a long horizontal one-dimensional dimension. It is subdivided into 3 groups according to the degree of difference in the cross-sectional area of the vertical main axis.

The first and second types of forging parts are generally divided into planes or symmetrically curved surfaces, and asymmetrically curved surfaces increase the complexity of the forging parts.

Class III-Forging parts with a tortuous main axis and lying in the die. It is subdivided into 3 groups according to the main axis direction.

There are also more complex forging parts with two or three types of structural features, such as most automobile steering knuckle forging parts.



Detailed division according to the structure type of the forging parts

Category I;

Group I-1: Forging parts formed by upsetting and slightly press-fitting, such as gears with little change in height between the hub and the rim.

Group I-2: Forging parts formed by extrusion with slight upsetting and both extrusion, press-in, and upsetting methods, such as universal joint forks, cross shafts, etc.

Group I-3: Forging parts formed by compound extrusion, such as hub axles, etc.

Category II:

Ⅱ-1 Group of forging parts with little difference in the cross-sectional area of the vertical main axis (the ratio of the maximum cross-sectional area to the minimum cross-sectional area is less than 1.6, and other equipment can be used for blanking)

Forging parts with large differences in the cross-sectional area of the vertical main axis of the Ⅱ-2 group (the ratio of the largest cross-sectional area to the minimum cross-sectional area>1.6, and other equipment is required to make billets in front), such as connecting rods.

Forging parts of group Ⅱ-3 whose ends (one end or both ends) are fork-shaped/branched-shaped, in addition to determining whether billeting is required according to the above two groups, the pre-forging steps, such as casing forks, must be reasonably designed.

Category III:

Ⅲ-1 group curved body axis in a vertical plane (parting plane or curved gently undulating band gap), but the long axis of a linear-shaped plan view (similar to the type Ⅱ), generally without special curved design to process step Formed Forging parts.

Ⅲ-2 group curved body axis in a horizontal plane (parting plane generally planar), must arrange bending process step to forming Forging parts.

Ⅲ-3 Group of Forging parts whose main axis is spatially curved (asymmetrically curved surface parting).



Use of forging parts

① General industrial forging parts refer to civilian industries such as machine tool manufacturing, agricultural machinery, farm tool manufacturing, and bearing industry.

②Forging parts for hydraulic generators, such as main shaft and intermediate shaft.

③Forging parts used in thermal power stations, such as rotors, impellers, retaining ring spindles, etc.

④Metallurgical machinery, such as cold rolls, hot rolls, and herringbone gear shafts.

⑤Forging parts for pressure vessels, such as cylinders, kettle ring flanges, and heads, etc.

⑥ Marine forging parts, such as crankshafts, tail shafts, rudder stocks, thrust shafts, and intermediate shafts.

⑦Forging machinery and equipment, such as hammerheads, hammer rods, hydraulic press columns, cylinder blocks, pillars and cylinder blocks of wheel and axle presses, etc.

⑧Modular forging parts are mainly forging dies for hot die forging hammers.

⑨Forging parts used in the automobile industry, such as left and right steering knuckles, front beams, couplers, etc. According to statistics, in automobiles, forgings account for 80% of their mass.

⑩Forging parts for locomotives, such as axles, wheels, leaf springs, crankshafts of locomotives, etc. According to statistics, forgings in locomotives account for 60% of their mass.

⑪Forging parts for military use, such as gun barrels, door bodies, breech brackets, and towing rings, etc. According to statistics, in tanks, forgings account for 65% of its mass.



At last

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